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APRENDER JUGANDO, JUGANDO A APRENDER

El juego conlleva aprendizaje. Nadie pondría en duda que mediante el juego se aprenden muchas cosas. Conceptos, ideas, vocabulario, conocimientos. Pero también actitudes, valores, normas, capacidades de trabajo en equipo, competencias y habilidades sociales.

¿Y hasta qué punto es interesante, importante y necesario jugar para aprender y ser capaces de utilizar esta capacidad humana para enseñar y aprender al mismo tiempo?, ¿Por qué se dice que es tan necesario el juego para el niño/a, sobre todo en los primeros años de la vida? Y ¿Qué quiere decir que estamos “gamificando” el aprendizaje cuando convertimos la actividad lúdica en una tarea escolar? Responder a estas cuestiones llevaría más que este pequeño artículo y haría necesario la referencia a numerosos documentos, experiencias e investigaciones de las que no vamos a hablar aquí. Sólo conviene señalar algunos de los aspectos más destacables que pueden hacer del “juego” una de las mejores estrategias de aprendizaje si se utilizan adecuada y oportunamente tanto en la escuela como en la familia. Las enumeramos brevemente.

Aceptar jugar significa aceptar unas reglas y normas de comportamiento, conocer límites y posibilidades para establecer las relaciones con los otros jugadores y respetar el desarrollo del juego y su resultado. Estamos así estableciendo las bases de los comportamientos y actitudes que permiten aprender y apoyar a otros en el aprendizaje para conseguir unas metas. Estos comportamientos y actitudes constituyen los mejores modelos para aprender en la escuela y en la familia, pueden ser la base de la adquisición de normas, valores y habilidades sociales si sabemos aprovecharlos didácticamente.

Entrar en el juego significa compromiso y respuesta a las exigencias del mismo, ponemos en juego nuestra propia motivación e interés, creamos e inventamos posibilidades y tratamos de resolver los problemas que el juego nos plantee, individualmente y en equipo. Es un poderoso elemento de motivación. Y no hay que olvidar que la motivación es el motor del aprendizaje.

Cuando jugamos tenemos que poner en funcionamiento todo nuestro cerebro ante los retos y necesidades del propio juego, de los jugadores y del resultado que deseamos conseguir. Jugamos con los 5 sentidos puestos en él para conseguir lo que nos proponemos. Sin darnos cuenta, la mente trabaja rápidamente tratando de dar respuesta adecuada a todo lo que nos rodea. Física y mentalmente nos obliga a concentrarnos, estar atentos, inventar, crear, resolver, aprender algo nuevo que solucione el obstáculo. Es el mejor y más completo ejercicio que podemos realizar para estar en forma mentalmente. Y debemos recordar que cuando tratamos de enseñar, quien aprende lo hace con todo el cerebro. Es un poderoso recurso didáctico para activar la mente y ponerla en funcionamiento.

Y, sobre todo, cuando jugamos nos sentimos bien. Estamos a gusto, incluso ante los obstáculos, aunque vayamos perdiendo… Y es que el juego ejerce también un estímulo en nuestras emociones que permiten mejorar el estado de ánimo y relajar la mente y el espíritu. Qué mejor manera de aprender que aprender con ilusión y sintiéndose bien mientras lo haces. Ya lo dijo Aristóteles: “Educar la mente sin educar el corazón no es educar en absoluto”.

Son muchas las ventajas que un uso adecuado del juego puede ofrecer para enseñar y aprender mejor y las estrategias que están hoy comenzando a utilizarse en educación teniendo en cuenta estas posibilidades se llaman GAMIFICACIÓN.

Así pues, jugar a aprender es aprender jugando. Una de las mejores estrategias para mejorar el rendimiento.

¿Jugamos a aprender?

Cristóbal Calderón Machuca

Pedagogo. Orientador del E.O.E.P. de Coslada. Madrid.

junio de 2016

 

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